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Air Quality News

学校室内空气质量存在严重问题

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Air Quality News from IQAir

孩子们平均每年在学校待1300 个小时,老师、管理员和其他学校工作人员在这里帮助他们学习和成长。学校不仅仅需要开发课程,还需要确保学校提供一个安全、健康的环境。

在过去几年里,关于小学生健康的营养、体育等问题获得了广泛的关注。遗憾的是,大部分人却忽视了对学生取得学业成功产生巨大影响的另一个因素 — 室内空气质量 (IAQ)。 为取得学业成功,学生必须呼吸洁净、有益健康的空气。糟糕的 IAQ 不仅引发疾病,导致学生待在家里而不去上学。而且最近的研究成果显示,可能会直接降低学生的学习能力。

洁净空气是学生取得学业成功的关键


孩子特别容易受到有害的空气污染物的影响,如微生物污染物、过敏原、化学物质和超细颗粒。他们的肺脏发育直接受到空气污染物的影响。在发育年龄接触被污染的空气,会导致呼吸机能在将来的生活中不断降低。越来越多的报道宣称,学龄儿童罹患哮喘与经常接触空气污染物有直接关系。事实上,据美国哮喘与过敏基金会称,呼吸道疾病是导致旷课的最主要原因,仅哮喘相关疾病每年导致全美学生缺课1400多万天。

研究还将糟糕的室内空气质量与学生开展心理测试作业(需要专注、计算和记忆)的能力降低相关联。越来越多的证据表明,糟糕的室内空气质量可导致儿童出现言语、感知、运动和行为障碍,还会导致听力损伤、易怒、发育迟缓。

污染来自各种源头


学校存在几种空气污染源。在新学中,缺乏自然通风为污染的一大因素。合成建筑材料和散发出甲醛等废气的设备也会造成问题。旧学校的问题包括铅、石棉、氡污染、屋面渗漏导致的霉菌和破碎墙壁的灰尘。很多学校关闭了新风系统或无法定时清洁维护这些系统。同时,室外污染物(如汽车废气、杀虫剂、工厂排放的废气)让学校的环境变得更糟。美国环保署研究显示,室内污染程度通常是室外的二至五倍非常。实际上,很多学校靠近主干道、火车轨道,这些成为孩子接触的主要空气污染源。

采取措施做出改变


家长可采取措施,确保孩子在每个教室呼吸洁净、有益健康的空气。 家长应向孩子所在学校提出以下问题:

  • 学校是否定期检查和清洁新风系统?
  • 是否开展常规检查,包括潮湿和霉菌?是否制定预防与补救措施?
  • 维护人员是否每天用湿布清洁和吸尘?
  • 学校是否选择安全清洁的产品、建筑材料和不会释放有害化学物质的设备?
  • 是否定期检查建筑物和制定污染源管理计划?

如需进一步了解如何在学校创建健康的室内环境,请访问 U.S. EPA:http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/

点击此处下载本文的 PDF 文档。

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This online publication is brought to you by The IQAir Group, which develops innovative air quality solutions for indoor environments around the globe. IQAir is the exclusive educational partner of the American Lung Association for the air purifier industry

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