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Air Quality News

并非所有口罩都是一样的

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Air Quality News from IQAir

保护性呼吸口罩随着 2002 年非典型性呼吸综合症 (SARS) 的爆发而变得流行。但保护性口罩的使用可追溯至近乎一个世纪之前,当时一场大型流感 (1918-1920) 使世界人口减少了将近 5%。

自那时起,科学家们便在争论佩戴口罩是否有助于预防病毒的传播。今天大部分人认为最高品质的口罩在感染控制方面具有重要作用。 但是,普通口罩的作用很小。

面罩和防尘罩


常见的面罩有外科、牙医和其他医用面罩。防尘罩与之类似,但主要在建筑场地和清洁活动中使用。这两种类型都是最常见同时也是最便宜的个人呼吸防护方式。这些口罩或许可以阻挡部分含有病毒和细菌的较大悬浮颗粒进入您的身体。 也可以通过防止您的唾液和呼吸道分泌物在您呼吸或打喷嚏时逸出,为您周围的人提供部分保护。

尽管这些口罩可以阻挡较大的水滴,但有两个明显的短板:

  • 1) 它们无法过滤或阻挡咳嗽或打喷嚏时传播的较小的颗粒,包括超细颗粒。
  • 2) 它们仅可以提供有限的保护—其无法牢固贴合面部,阻挡呼吸或喷射出的许多悬浮污染物。

呼吸器


呼吸器可以提供更高级别的个人呼吸保护。它们看起来与口罩和防尘口罩类似,但可牢固贴合面部,避免了空气泄漏。 与口罩和防尘口罩不同,呼吸器通过认证,满足最低过滤和面部贴合标准。

测试口罩


研究所测试确认了呼吸器确实胜过其他口罩的表现,至少在抵御大颗粒方面是如此。研究人员测试了三种常见口罩—外科手术口罩、预制成形的防尘口罩和普通的大手帕—对比对象是 N95 呼吸器(95 表示该口罩理论上可以过滤测试中 95% 的颗粒)。他们将各种设备捆扎在人体模特上,模特配有特殊的悬浮颗粒探头,并测量了在过滤直径为 1.0 至 2.5 微米颗粒时的效果。
过滤效果如下:

  • 防尘口罩:6.1%
  • 大手帕:11.3%
  • 外科手术口罩:33.3%
  • N95 呼吸器:89.6%

研究人员认为 N95 呼吸器未达到理论的 95% 过滤效果的原因是难以达到最佳佩戴方式。 他们也得出了结论:防尘口罩、大手帕甚至外科口罩与 N95 呼吸器相比,保护效果甚微。 事实上,他们特别强调,“佩戴此类口罩可能产生的是一种虚假的保护感觉。”

注意佩戴方式


特别需要重视的是,即便是通过审核的呼吸器也必须正确佩戴才能发挥效果。 下面是确保正确佩戴呼吸器的几条小建议:

  • 仅使用上面带有 NIOSH 批准标记的呼吸器。
  • 带上呼吸器并根据需要调整捆绑情况,检查确定是否佩戴牢固。
  • 阅读口罩随附的制造商说明。
  • 呼吸器并非设计供儿童佩戴,也不应让儿童佩戴。
  • 有胡须的人士无法正确佩戴呼吸器。

关于口罩和呼吸器的更多信息,请访问 FDA 网站 www.fda.gov。

点击此处下载本文的 PDF 文档。

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This online publication is brought to you by The IQAir Group, which develops innovative air quality solutions for indoor environments around the globe. IQAir is the exclusive educational partner of the American Lung Association for the air purifier industry

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