|星期四, 1月 21|
不健康 157 美国 AQI
|星期五, 1月 22|
不健康 184 美国 AQI
|星期六, 1月 23|
不健康 176 美国 AQI
不健康 198 美国 AQI
|星期一, 1月 25|
对敏感人群不健康 144 美国 AQI
|星期二, 1月 26|
不健康 161 美国 AQI
|星期三, 1月 27|
中等 85 美国 AQI
|星期四, 1月 28|
中等 56 美国 AQI
|星期五, 1月 29|
中等 72 美国 AQI
|星期六, 1月 30|
对敏感人群不健康 123 美国 AQI
Qingdao is a major city in the eastern Shandong Province on the Yellow Sea coastline. It is sometimes called Tsingtao. It is a major nodal city and a very important link in China’s One Belt, One Road initiative which links Asia to Europe. In 2014 the population was almost 10 million so it will almost certainly be a lot more now.It is a major nodal city and a very important link in China’s One Belt, One Road initiative which links Asia to Europe. In 2014 the population was almost 10 million so it will almost certainly be a lot more now.
Towards the end of 2020, Qingdao was experiencing “Moderate” air quality, according to the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) recommendations. The figure recorded was a US AQI figure of 86. Concentrations of other pollutants were as follows: PM2.5 - 29 µg/m³, PM10 - 86.5 µg/m³, ozone (O3) - 59 µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - 26 µg/m³, sulphur dioxide (SO2) - 20 µg/m³ and carbon monoxide (CO) - 700 µg/m³. With levels such as these, the advice is to close doors and windows to prevent the ingress of polluted air and those of a sensitive disposition should avoid outdoor exercise where possible or until the air quality has improved.
In 2019, Qingdao recorded an annual mean figure of 39.4 µg/m³ which classified it as “Unhealthy for sensitive groups”. For 7 months of that year, the air quality was classed as “Moderate” with figures between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. In the three winter months of December, January and February, the air quality was “Unhealthy” with figures between 55.5 and 150.4 µg/m³. The remaining two months showed figures as being “Unhealthy for sensitive groups” with readings between 35.5 and 55.4 µg/m³. Historically the figures were 38.4 µg/m³ in 2017 and 34.3 µg/m³ in 2018, so the quality is getting slightly worse as each year passes.
However, an improvement was starting to show in 2020. On the morning of 4th August, Qingdao City announced the city's ecological and environmental protection work in the first half of 2020. In the first half of the year, the overall situation of Qingdao’s ambient air quality was the best in the past six years, with an excellent air quality rate of 84.6 per cent, an increase of 8.9 percentage points year-on-year; the comprehensive air quality index improved by 14.8 per cent year-on-year, ranking top three in the province.
The air quality in Qingdao in the first half of 2020 was: PM2.5 is 36 µg/m³, an improvement of 20 per cent year-on-year; PM10 is 66 µg/m³, an improvement of 22.4 per cent year-on-year; sulphur dioxide (SO2) was 7 µg/m³, an improvement of 22.2 year-on-year, and nitrogen dioxide was 29 µg/m³ which was an improvement of 12.1 per cent year-on-year, which was the best level since the implementation of the new national air quality standard in 2013. The prevention and control of air pollution have always been of great concern to the citizens. Qingdao gas station launched a preferential policy for staggered refuelling in June to encourage car owners to refuel at night to minimize ozone (O3) generation. Under high-temperature conditions in summer and autumn, especially under strong sunlight, volatile organic compounds in the air can be converted into ozone through photochemical reactions.
The sources of air pollutants are mainly "released by nature" and "manufactured by human activities". Natural releases include those caused by natural phenomena such as sandstorms, volcanic activity, sea salt droplets, forest fires and weathering of rocks. The production of human activities can be divided into fixed sources (mainly industrial pollution) and mobile sources (mainly refers to motor vehicle pollution), emission sources (mainly construction and agricultural pollution) and others (catering and burning of paper).
On 22nd September 2020, Chinese President Xi Jinping made a solemn promise at the 75th United Nations General Assembly that China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will peak by 2030 and strive to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
In the past few years, the concentration of air pollution in Qingdao has decreased year by year, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have steadily reached the standard, but PM10 has not yet got there, and PM2.5 is on the verge of instability. At present, there is little potential for emission reduction in terminal treatment facilities, and how to ensure stable air quality up to standard is an important issue facing Qingdao. As an open coastal city, Qingdao has slightly better air quality than the similar sub-provincial northern city, such as Dalian, but slightly worse air quality than southern cities such as Shenzhen, Ningbo and Xiamen.
Straw burning produces large amounts of pollutants in a short period of time. If unfavourable weather conditions are superimposed on it, it will increase the impact of polluting weather. Therefore, the ban on straw burning in autumn should be an important part of the prevention and control of air pollution in autumn and winter. 2020 was the last year in a “five year plan” to radically reduce pollution.
Satellite remote sensing and other scientific and technological means can be used to monitor incineration fires. For fires that are discovered, on-site verification will be conducted immediately, and a follow-up and supervision of the investigation and handling, and severely punish those responsible.
Carbon monoxide (CO) will reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells, and its impact on health depends on the length of time the body is exposed to carbon monoxide and the concentration of carbon monoxide inhaled. The average person feels headache, dizziness and fatigue when inhaling low levels of carbon monoxide. When inhaling high concentrations of carbon monoxide, it can cause blurred vision, loss of coordination, and even death.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Exposure to low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide can cause bronchial allergies and aggravate asthma patients' reactions to allergens. In addition, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) will also worsen the condition of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Prolonged exposure to nitrogen dioxide may weaken lung function and reduce the ability of the respiratory system to fight disease.
Ground-level ozone (O3) is a gas that can easily cause chemical reactions. It can irritate the eyes and cause respiratory problems. In addition to causing asthma, ozone also increases the risk of respiratory infections and worsens existing respiratory diseases.