|3||Hamburg Kieler Straße|
|4||Hamburg Max - Brauer - Allee II (Straße)|
|5||Hamburg Altona Elbhang|
|6||Hamburg Flughafen Nord|
10:12, 10月 21
|优秀||41 美国 AQI||PM2.5|
|Open your windows to bring clean, fresh air indoors|
|Enjoy outdoor activities|
|星期日, 10月 18|
优秀19 美国 AQI
|星期一, 10月 19|
优秀15 美国 AQI
|星期二, 10月 20|
中等52 美国 AQI
中等51 美国 AQI
|星期四, 10月 22|
优秀23 美国 AQI
|星期五, 10月 23|
优秀32 美国 AQI
|星期六, 10月 24|
优秀19 美国 AQI
|星期日, 10月 25|
优秀21 美国 AQI
|星期一, 10月 26|
优秀17 美国 AQI
|星期二, 10月 27|
优秀43 美国 AQI
The average fine dust value PM2.5 of Hamburg, the second largest city in Germany, was 10.8 µg/m3 according to the 2019 city ranking. Thus, in 2019, the WHO guideline value for the concentration of PM2.5 in Hamburg was exceeded by 8%. However, the PM2.5 value is "good" according to the less stringent air quality index (AQI) of the Federal Environment Agency.
Over a period of six months, Hamburg managed to meet the World Health Organisation (WHO) air quality guideline value of 10 µg/m3 for PM2.5 in 2019. The worst air quality was recorded in Berlin in March and December 2019.
Compared to Munich, another major German city, Hamburg's PM2.5 value was around 2% worse. Overall, Hamburg ranks 75th among the municipalities in Germany with the worst air quality. The highest air pollution was found in Giessen, with an average value of 14.9 µg/m3. Compared to Europe's largest port city Sines in Portugal, which had an average PM2.5 value of 6.8 µg/m3 in 2019, Hamburg has a much worse air quality. The other major port cities of Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Antwerp in Belgium had an average PM2.5 value in 2019 that was 0.4 µg/m3 and 2.1 µg/m3 worse respectively.
The impact on air quality is particularly noticeable in the city centre due to intensive industrial production, urban traffic and the central port location. The air quality north of the Elbe in Hamburg is mainly influenced by wood firing and the general heating behaviour in private households. This pattern of air pollution also shows a correlation with the population density in this area. Particulate matter pollution from ship engines is particularly visible near the port and along the Elbe. Higher levels of particulate matter can also be found around the Alstersee. In winter, air pollution from PM2.5 seems to be 60% higher, due to more intensive heating behaviour of Hamburg's city residents and the corresponding weather conditions.1
The airport of Hamburg is also responsible for air pollution. The airport says that most air pollutants come from internal vehicle operations, not from air traffic itself. This includes the maintenance and movements of aircraft on the ground. Hamburg Airport is currently endeavoring to make its energy management more efficient and to make greater use of renewable and more environmentally friendly energy sources.
To see the exact air pollution in certain parts of Hamburg, the real-time map for Hamburg is located at the top of the website. This live data makes it possible to keep an eye on the air quality in Hamburg and the surrounding area.
The Hanseatic City of Hamburg is home to the largest port in Germany. Due to the high level of shipping traffic at the port of Hamburg, this district is particularly affected by air pollution. However, it is not only water vehicles that contribute to air pollution, but also the increased transport traffic away from the port causes increased pollution. Although the annual average values for nitrogen oxides (NOx) appear to have been respected according to EU legislation, there are isolated cases of high exceedances, which can be a major source of pollution for sensitive groups. Occasionally, these high levels of exposure last for a whole month. The measurements are carried out independently of the Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union (NABU) and show higher values compared to the official figures of the Hamburg Senate.2
The air pollution in Hamburg has several main sources.
Road traffic is one of the most important sources of air pollution in Hamburg. Cars are the main contributors to the pollution of Hamburg's air, closely followed by commercial vehicles and trucks. According to the forecasts of the Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (ISL), emissions are expected to decrease in the coming years due to the progressive development of the technologies used.3
Another source of air pollution in Hamburg comes from shipping, first and foremost container ships, followed by tankers. Most of all NOx, released by combustion processes in ships' engines, is significant here. The release of these emissions usually occurs during the time when the ships are in port. According to a forecast by the Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (ISL), NOx emission levels will continue to rise until 2025 and thus continue to pollute the air quality of the City of Hamburg.4
Another significant source of emissions is the industry in Hamburg. This includes, above all, combustion plants with various fuels, but also, and especially, waste disposal or incineration. In addition, there are emissions from the processing and production of crude oil or metals. Combustion in households and small businesses, such as wood firing, also contributes to the emissions.5
During the colder winter months, air pollution tends to increase. This rise is related to the increased heating behavior of Hamburg's city residents and the air pollutants emitted as a result. In addition, the winter inversion weather situation also plays an important role, as the cold and heavy layer of air is trapped under the warm and lighter layer of air. Due to this blockage, there is hardly any air exchange between these two layers and the air pollutants are trapped under the warm air. As a result, increased levels of pollutants are measured and the air quality index (AQI) tends to be "moderate" in the affected months.
In the Hamburg conurbation, air pollutants can impair the health of sensitive people. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine dust particles (PM2.5 and PM10) are the main contributors to health problems. The health effects can be felt through cardiovascular problems, respiratory problems, asthma, bronchitis and coughing. Exposure also increases the likelihood of developing lung cancer or respiratory infection. In addition, high levels of air pollution can lead to a reduction in life expectancy. Furthermore, children often suffer from impaired lung function.6
The anthropogenic effects of air pollutants on the environment are also evident in the strong acidification and eutrophication of the soil in Hamburg and its surroundings. The high pH value is related to increased nutrient levels in the soil, which in turn can have a negative impact on the fauna and the general ecosystem of the environment. To counteract this, not only must air pollution be reduced, but direct measures must also be taken to help the soil.7
In 2017, the City of Hamburg's Ministry of Environment and Energy published a revised version of the Clean Air Plan with a focus on the links between the various packages of measures. The first package of measures of the city state of Hamburg concentrates on an expansion of the local public transport system (ÖPNV). This package of measures is followed by measures to increase the use of bicycle and electric transport. Through expanded management and improved logistics, the general traffic situation is also to be improved and mixed use of passenger and public transport is also to be simplified. This should significantly reduce traffic and thus air pollution on Hamburg's roads.8
In order to reduce private and commercial incineration, subsidy programs are to come into force that support renovations or improved insulation techniques. A general expansion of renewable energies, through the extended use of wind and solar energy, is also included in this package of measures.9
The Clean Air Plan of the City of Hamburg only deals with NO2 emissions, but not with other air pollutants that are in the Hamburg air. The responsible persons justify this with the not exceeded limit values of the other pollutants. This means that they are not legally obliged to draw up or renew an air pollution control plan for other air pollutants such as particulate matter.10
The city of Hamburg last published an action plan against fine dust pollution in 2005. This plan was drawn up due to several exceedances of the limit values in the Habichtstraße during the previous 15 months. The exceedances can be traced back to local city traffic at the measuring point, but regional background values also influence the high values. The measures introduced included a more efficient traffic light system in the surrounding area and general road construction measures to improve the traffic flow in the critical street and other parts of Hamburg. In addition, the measures included the general installation of particulate filters in the used vehicles.11 Since 2005, the measures against particulate pollution have not been revised or renewed (status 2020).
In contrast to other major German cities, Hamburg does not have environmental zones in which only vehicles below a certain exhaust gas value are allowed to drive.12 Thus, vehicles with higher exhaust gas values are also allowed to drive into the city center, which has a negative effect on air quality in Hamburg.
+ Article resources
 Ramacher, M. O. P., Karl, M., Aulinger, A. & Bieser, J. (2019). Population Exposure to Emissions from Industry, Traffic, Shipping and Residential Heating in the Urban Area of Hamburg. Springer Proceedings in Complexity, 177–183. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22055-6_28
 Knödler, G. (2020, July 8). Luftverschmutzung in Hamburg: Der Hafen dieselt vor sich hin. TAZ Verlags- und Vertriebs GmbH.
 Behörde für Umwelt und Energie. (2017, June). Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg (2. Fortschreibung). Amt für Immissionsschutz und Betriebe. S. 35-39.
 Ebd. S. 34.
 Ebd. S.45ff.
 Behörde für Umwelt, Klima, Energie und Agrarwirtschaft. (o. J.). Auswirkungen von Luftschadstoffen. hamburg.de.
 Jones, A. (2010). The European Environment State and Outlook 2010 Soil. Publications Office of the European Union. DOI: 10.2800/58866
 Behörde für Umwelt und Energie. (2017, June). Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg (2. Fortschreibung). Amt für Immissionsschutz und Betriebe. S.65.
 Ebd. S. 106f
 Behörde für Umwelt, Klima, Energie und Agrarwirtschaft. (2017). Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg (2. Fortschreibung) Darstellung der Gründe und Erwägungen. Amt für Immissionsschutz und Betriebe.
 Behörde für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt. (2005, December). Aktionsplan gegen Belastungen durch Feinstaub. Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg.
 Behörde für Umwelt, Klima, Energie und Agrarwirtschaft - Fluglärmschutzbeauftragte, Planerischer Immissionsschutz. (2020, August 19). Umweltzone Hamburg. hamburg.de.