12:17, 4月 17
|中等|| 57 美国 AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 15 µg/m³|
|pm10|| 21.4 µg/m³|
|no2|| 12.7 µg/m³|
|so2|| 1.6 µg/m³|
|co|| 265.6 µg/m³|
|星期三, 4月 14|
优秀 29 美国 AQI
|星期四, 4月 15|
优秀 21 美国 AQI
|星期五, 4月 16|
优秀 33 美国 AQI
中等 52 美国 AQI
|星期日, 4月 18|
中等 72 美国 AQI
|星期一, 4月 19|
中等 68 美国 AQI
|星期二, 4月 20|
中等 61 美国 AQI
|星期三, 4月 21|
优秀 31 美国 AQI
|星期四, 4月 22|
中等 54 美国 AQI
|星期五, 4月 23|
优秀 36 美国 AQI
Gdańsk is a city on the Baltic coast of northern Poland. With a 2019 estimated population of 470,907. Gdańsk is the largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and serves as its capital. It is one of the most prominent cities within the geographical region of Kashubia. It is Poland's foremost seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.
In 2021, it was experiencing “Moderate” quality air with a US AQI reading of 95. This is according to figures suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The concentration of its pollutants are as follows: PM2.5 - 33 µg/m³, PM10 - 43.2 µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - 27.4 µg/m³, sulphur dioxide (SO2) - 10.4 µg/m³ and carbon monoxide (CO) - 504.8 µg/m³. At this level of pollution, the advice is to close doors and windows in order to prevent the ingress of dirty air and those of a sensitive disposition should avoid venturing outside unless it is absolutely necessary. Outdoor exercise should be avoided until the air quality improves.
Car traffic is a major cause in big cities, but nationwide the way many private homes are heated is the biggest source of air pollution. These are stoves that use coal and wood and are undoubtedly the main source of heating for many Polish people and the main source of pollution.
Since the restrictions put into place due to the COVID 19 pandemic, it can be seen that almost 17 per cent of city workers worked from home between January and April 2020. This lack of traffic contributed to a reduction in emissions but could be offset by the increase in the need to heat the home during the day.
Due to the lower number of cars on the roads, certain spaces within the city have been turned over to use by cyclists. Only three cities in Poland are encouraging cycling and walking as an alternative means of transport. These are Kraków, Gdańsk and Poznań.
Cycling was becoming more popular even before the pandemic but greater interest has been shown recently. One of Poland’s largest online cycle shop reported an increase of almost 150 per cent when compared to the same period of time in 2019.
Unfortunately, public transport is becoming less popular due to social distancing (or the lack of it). This situation needs to be addressed because the operating costs will continue to rise but revenue is falling. Users are all too tempted to go back to using their private cars where they feel safe and away from others.
Poland imports almost 1 million cars from Europe, annually. These tend to be older vehicles and therefore not as technologically advanced as modern vehicles.
Suggestions have been put forward with regards to a new system of taxation for imported cars. It is aimed at making the purchase of an old polluting vehicle almost prohibitive due to extremely high rates of tax. A figure of 10 times the current level has been suggested.
In 2019, the overall quality of the air in Gdansk was “Moderate” with figures between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. However, in February and March and May and July, it attained the WHO target figure of 10 µg/m³ or less. September saw a slight deterioration with a reading of 10-12 µg/m³. For the remaining 7 months, the figures were between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. The air quality has been deteriorating slightly since 2017. In this year the average figure was 11.7 µg/m³, followed by 10.1 µg/m³ in 2018.
The authorities in Gdansk have realised they have a problem with air pollution and started to do something about it, 20 years ago. They have been relentlessly working to modernise the existing heating infrastructure, the main factor contributing to air pollution. During the winter months when more heat is needed, the south of Poland had worse quality air than Beijing. It was cruelly called “The European Capital of Smog” by one British newspaper.
Poland’s Port of Gdansk, which is one of the largest seaports in the Baltic Sea, is using IoT (Internet of Things) tools to tackle emissions. Using a downloadable app, customers can monitor the state of air pollution at a given location, in real-time. The app compares the level of pollution with the norms and generates alerts if they are exceeded.
The system measures: air temperature and pressure; relative humidity; ammonia (NH3); hydrogen sulphide (H2S); phosphine (PH3); wind speed and direction; and rainfall. This data is centrally processed and the results made available via the app.
More than 84 per cent of world trade is carried by sea. Although carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from container vessels are comparatively much lower than the equivalent air freight emissions, an 18,000 TEU (twenty-foot equivalent unit) container vessel still emits 3 grams of carbon dioxide per tonne/kilometre. Recent studies suggest that maritime transport contributes to 3.5 – 4 per cent of pollution with sulphur, a highly carcinogenic agent.
The integration of land transport with ports also creates environmental impacts such as noise and air pollution and traffic congestion.
PM2.5 is dust with particles no larger than 2.5 microns. The World Health Organisation (WHO) described it as the most harmful to human health in the group of atmospheric pollutants. Its harmfulness results, among other things, from the fact that its particles are so small that they can penetrate the alveoli into the bloodstream. Continuous breathing of polluted PM2.5 dust has been shown to reduce life expectancy. Even short-term exposure can be harmful, increasing the risk of respiratory and circulatory diseases. In addition, there are bothersome symptoms that occur directly as a result of contact with contaminated air, such as coughing, increased frequency of asthma, and a feeling of breathlessness. Breathing air contaminated with PM2.5 dust also increases the risk of heart attacks and arrhythmias.
PM10 is dust composed of particles with a diameter smaller than or equal to 10 microns. Its occurrence is mainly related to the combustion process of solid and liquid fossil fuels. Dust may contain substances that are toxic and harmful to humans. Smoke, soot, asbestos, metal particles (arsenic, nickel, cadmium, lead), dioxins, furans and benz(o)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - all of these not only sound terrible but also have a negative impact on our health.