|4||Krasnaya Pahra, Moscow|
|8||Saint Petersburg, St.-Petersburg|
|中等|| 51 美国 AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 12.1 µg/m³|
优秀 24 美国 AQI
|星期三, 4月 14|
优秀 11 美国 AQI
|星期四, 4月 15|
优秀 50 美国 AQI
|星期五, 4月 16|
优秀 42 美国 AQI
|星期六, 4月 17|
优秀 46 美国 AQI
|星期日, 4月 18|
优秀 10 美国 AQI
Novosibirsk is situated in the south-western part of Siberia on the banks of the Ob River in Russia. It is the third most populous city after Moscow and St. Petersburg. In 2018 it had an estimated population of over 1.6 million people. Its location was chosen as it is the site of the Novosibirsk Rail Bridge which would eventually carry the Trans-Siberian Railway. Because of this, it soon grew into a major transport hub and with it, commerce and industry.
At the beginning of 2021, Novosibirsk was enjoying “Good” air quality with a US AQI figure of just 17. The concentration level of PM2.5 particulate matter was 4.1 µg/m³. With levels as low as these, it is recommended that windows are opened to allow the fresh air into the house. All forms of outdoor activity can be enjoyed without worry.
The main sources of air pollution in the region are automobile transportation accounting for 73.3 per cent of gross emissions in the region, heat power enterprises account for 10.4 per cent, utility boilers (both housing and communal services) and stove heating in the private sector. There has been a gradual decrease in environmental pollution with lead. The share of leaded gasoline was 2.2 per cent, NGV fuel - 0.3 per cent. For the city of Novosibirsk and the cities of regional subordination, in which the bulk of vehicles and stationary sources of emissions are concentrated, the problem of air protection from pollution is of priority importance.
In the 90s, the pollution index was 30, now it is 6-7. As a metropolis, Novosibirsk is a fairly clean city for most of the year. And, as in any megalopolis, and Novosibirsk is no exception, the main source of pollution is vehicle emissions.
An air examination was carried out on Wednesday, 3rd June 2020, in the Pervomaisky district of Novosibirsk to determine the source of the dirty air. A comprehensive study on the concentration of harmful substances, soot and dust was organised at the request of residents. This year, due to early spring, the fight against dust began earlier. But air purity also depends on emissions from industry, vehicles and also on weather conditions.
In July 2019 the level of air pollution in Novosibirsk became hazardous. The online air monitoring service showed that the air in Novosibirsk was now eight points out of ten polluted. The platform determines the air quality according to the scale: 1 - clean air, 10 - very dirty/hazardous.
Note that on 18-19th July, the service put Novosibirsk in the top three of polluted cities in Russia, but on 20th July the figure jumped sharply. The pollutants present in the air were PM2.5 (dust particles up to 2.5 microns) - 160 - 284 µg/m³, PM10 (dust particles up to 10 microns) - 300 - 539 µg/m³ in Novosibirsk). Normally, these indicators should not exceed 10 and 19 µg/m³, respectively. Therefore, the system summarised the level of air pollution in Novosibirsk as “very harmful”.
Even though these figures are from 2019, similar figures were recorded in January 2021 when Novosibirsk was the only city in Russia in which the level of air pollution was estimated at 9 points. This was mainly due to the unusually still air.
The air pollution in Novosibirsk is neither getting better nor worse. There are times of the year when the air quality is good with no problems. But then at other times of year forest fires occur in the nearby areas and blanket the city with noxious smoke and fumes. This can be compounded by the stillness of the air and the ever-present exhaust fumes from vehicles and industry and that causes atmospheric pollution. The burning of leaves and other such organic material is banned but such a ban is very difficult to monitor.
Compared to other Russian megacities, everything is very good in Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia. There are no large enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical and pulp and paper industries, oil and coke refineries. Those industries certainly emit especially dangerous air pollutants. Even a large cement plant works in Iskitim, 70 km from the southern outskirts of the city is not a real problem. Coal and gas energy, the aircraft industry, mechanical engineering and metalworking, as well as construction and transport are the main sectors of the urban economy. All of them are not particularly "dirty", and against the background of Omsk, where a large oil refinery works right in the city limits, or the same Krasnoyarsk, where there is an aluminium plant, Novosibirsk really looks like a relatively prosperous oasis.
And the location on the Priobskoye plateau of the West Siberian Plain, with a predominantly south-western wind rose, provides a good "ventilation" of the territory.
Ozone (O3), which is the main constituent of smog, is a powerful irritant and oxidizing agent. Ozone levels are highest in the summer months during late morning and early afternoon. Short-term exposure can cause shortness of breath, chest pain and airway tenderness. Children who spend more time outdoors on days of high ozone pollution are more likely to develop bronchial asthma. Long-term exposure to ozone results in a slight long-term impairment of lung function.
Sulphur oxides from the combustion of high-sulphur fossil fuels can form highly soluble acidic aerosols that are deposited in the upper respiratory tract. Sulphur oxides can cause airway inflammation, increasing the risk of chronic bronchitis and causing bronchoconstriction.
Particulate air pollution is a complex mixture produced by burning fossil fuels (especially diesel). The particles can cause local and systemic inflammatory reactions, which explains their effect on the state of both the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The so-called PM2.5 particles (less than 2.5 microns in diameter) cause a more pronounced inflammatory response than larger particles. Current evidence suggests that air pollution increases mortality from all causes, especially from diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.