|4||Krasnaya Pahra, Moscow|
|8||Saint Petersburg, St.-Petersburg|
|中等|| 64 美国 AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 18.1 µg/m³|
|星期一, 4月 12|
中等 64 美国 AQI
中等 54 美国 AQI
|星期三, 4月 14|
优秀 43 美国 AQI
|星期四, 4月 15|
优秀 46 美国 AQI
|星期五, 4月 16|
优秀 35 美国 AQI
|星期六, 4月 17|
优秀 10 美国 AQI
|星期日, 4月 18|
优秀 6 美国 AQI
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia. The city lies at the convergence of the Volga and the Kazanka rivers. In 2010 the estimated population was 1.6 million people.
At the beginning of 2021, Kazan was experiencing some “Good” quality air with a US AQI reading of just 9. This is according to classifications by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The recorded level of the PM2.5 pollutant was 2.1 µg/m³. With figures at this level, doors and windows can be opened to let in some fresh air and outdoor activities can be enjoyed without thinking about the air quality.
The main air pollutant is emissions from vehicles, which account for 70 per cent of the total air pollution. For enterprises, it is 30 per cent. Between June and September, 800 vehicles were checked for excess emissions. 10 per cent of these vehicles failed the test!
It is very difficult to hide from vehicle emissions because smoke from the exhaust pipes pollutes every street and is detected in the courtyard of every residential building. In the "Report on Human Development in the Russian Federation", air pollution from transport is named as the main environmental factor affecting human health.
As for the industrial emissions, Kazanorgsintez enterprises, gunpowder and brick factories have installed gas cleaning systems in an attempt to clean their emissions. At the MUE Vodokanal, work has been completed to equip treatment facilities with special designs for air purification systems.
In the summer of 2018, volunteers deployed 50 Palm diffusion tubes throughout the city, including the suburban settlements of Osinovo and Zaymishche. Then between two and four weeks later, the volunteers collected the tubes and sent them for examination. 41 samples were analysed, but some of the tubes were rejected.
One indicator was studied for the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This gas is generated from vehicle exhausts and as a result of industrial emissions. The maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of nitrogen dioxide is 40 µg / m³. Anything above is unhealthy. It turned out that there are several places in Kazan where it was exceeded.
A study actually confirmed the assumption of environmentalists and activists in that Kazan needs urgent measures to reduce air pollution, including from vehicles. Further expansion of roads, lack of prospective development of ecological public transport, pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure can further increase the concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the air.
Greenpeace, based on data from satellites from June 2018 to May 2019, compiled a rating of air pollution in large cities of Russia with nitrogen dioxide. Kazan took ninth place in the ranking. The first and second places went to Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a dangerous toxic gas that causes respiratory symptoms and lung disease with acute exposure and increases the risk of chronic disease with prolonged exposure. The presence of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere leads to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), two of the most important airborne pollutants in terms of damage to public health worldwide. Long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide is associated with increased mortality rates worldwide.
Schoolchildren in different parts of the country were sent kits for conducting lessons, in which they will learn how to reduce emissions of harmful substances if they change from a private car to public transport.
Greening (or the planting of trees and shrubs) is one of the main measures in the fight for clean air in large cities. It is the green spaces that take on a significant load to reduce gas pollution. Due to the fact that the trees shed their leaves, we feel the smoke and smog more strongly in autumn. Plants also reduce the number of pathogenic microbes in the air, releasing special substances known as phytoncides. For example, there is five times less pathogenic flora in the air of a forest than in an urban area.
In Kazan, the amount of greenery has decreased since 2007 as the city was actively built up for various events, and many small parks and squares were developed. It is more profitable to sell a piece of land for redevelopment than to use it as a park.
Air pollution can cause cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. Every year in Russia there are between 80 and 140 thousand premature deaths due to air pollution.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas with a very strong odour (in concentrations in the atmospheric air of large cities, it is mostly odourless) has a pronounced irritant effect on the respiratory tract and general toxic effect. Nitrogen dioxide is produced because of the combustion process and is commonly found in the atmosphere in close association with other major pollutants. One of the main sources of air pollution with nitrogen dioxide are vehicles with internal combustion engines, primarily of low ecological class and diesel ones, as well as energy facilities, heat supply facilities, and industry using fossil fuels. At the same time, the share of vehicles in the total air pollution of cities, including nitrogen dioxide and other associated pollutants, can reach 80-90 per cent. The average daily maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for nitrogen dioxide in accordance with Russian standards is 40 μg / m3. Anything above is unhealthy.
Because of the polluted air, coughing increases, asthma attacks and cases of bronchitis become more frequent. In general, this can lead to an increase in overall mortality, in particular, mortality from cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. In addition, benz (o) pyrene is especially dangerous as it has a carcinogenic effect. There is a large quantity of it in the exhaust gases of cars. In order to reduce the level of pollution, it is necessary first of all to pay attention to the emissions of vehicles. To do this, improve vehicle traffic, minimise traffic jams, repair roads on time, and use fuel with improved environmental characteristics. Modern vehicles are fitted with the latest technology which helps clean the exhaust gases before they are emitted, usually known as a catalytic convertor.