|2||Berezovka, Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|3||坎斯克, Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|4||Solnechnyy, Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|5||泽列诺戈尔斯克, Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|6||阿钦斯克, Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|10||Krasnaya Pahra, Moscow|
|优秀|| 42 美国 AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 10.1 µg/m³|
|Open your windows to bring clean, fresh air indoors|
|Enjoy outdoor activities|
优秀 41 美国 AQI
|星期日, 4月 18|
中等 59 美国 AQI
|星期一, 4月 19|
中等 67 美国 AQI
|星期二, 4月 20|
中等 56 美国 AQI
|星期三, 4月 21|
中等 58 美国 AQI
|星期四, 4月 22|
中等 58 美国 AQI
|星期五, 4月 23|
中等 75 美国 AQI
Voronezh is a city and the administrative centre of Voronezh Oblast, Russia. It is situated on the banks of the Voronezh River close to where it converges with the River Don. The South-eastern Railway runs through the city which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia as well as the Caucasus and Ukraine. The 2020 estimated population was just over 1 million people. This make it the thirteenth most populous city in the country.
At the beginning of 2021, Voronezh was experiencing a period of “Moderate” quality air with a US AQI reading of 53. This is according to recommendations by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The recorded level of the pollutant PM2.5 was 13.1 µg/m³. These figures are not large but it is still advisable to close doors and windows to prevent the ingress of dirty air into the rooms. Those of a sensitive disposition should avoid venturing outside until the quality of air has improved. If going out is unavoidable, then a good quality face-mask should be worn at all times.
Typically, the total emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere comes from stationary sources which is 12 per cent, transportation is 24 per cent, the food (15 per cent) and chemical (12 per cent) industries, and electric power production at 10 per cent). The volume of emissions from mobile sources does not change drastically and remains at 88 per cent, which is due to a slight expansion of 1 per cent of the vehicle fleet in the region.
In many cities, large industrial enterprises are located within the city limits and have been there since the old Soviet period. So there are an aluminium and cement plant, three large thermal power plants and coal-fired boiler houses in Krasnoyarsk. The level of air pollution in this city is characterised as high, according to the state report "On the state of the environment". In 2015 alone, the volume of emissions amounted to 195 thousand tons, of which 34 per cent came from road transport, 31 per cent from the Rusala aluminium plant and 23 per cent from three coal-fired power plants of the Siberian Generating Company (SGK).
The situation is associated with the large number of personal vehicles and with unresolved problems of public transport in the city. It is possible to improve the situation regarding air pollution through the development of an efficient public transport network. Some trolleybuses can be seen in the city centre but they are few in number and not popular.
Air pollution is facilitated by the low technical level of vehicles, the absence of exhaust gas neutralisation systems, the high density of the traffic flow, and the underdeveloped road network.
The volume of air pollutants in the Voronezh region over the past few years has increased by 4.8 thousand tons and now stands at 72.7 thousand tons. These substances include carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide and others. The main source of air pollution is motor vehicles. In 2016, the volume of pollutant emissions from cars amounted to 265 thousand tons, or 75 per cent of the total. According to experts, the main reason for air pollution is the use of low-quality fuel.
Experts believe that the introduction of modern technologies at industrial enterprises and restrictions on the field of road transport by introducing paid parking and switching to Euro-5 fuel can radically change the situation. Modern cars are fitted with the latest technology which include filters and catalysts to reduce the harmful emissions from vehicles. Many of the older vehicles that are still using the city streets are much older and therefore lack these refinements. It would be a good idea to slowly phase these older models out and replace them with electric cars or vehicles that produce zero emissions.
Air pollution can affect every organ in the human body, a major global survey warned. Pollution is known to be harmful to the lungs and respiratory tract, but research suggests it damages the entire body.
Fine particles (PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from vehicle exhausts, factories and power plants can form a harmful cocktail of pollutants. They cause inflammation and circulate throughout the body via the bloodstream.
Tissue damage can be a direct result of toxicity of pollutants, as fine and ultrafine particles can access organs, or indirectly through systemic inflammation. It can cause, complicate or exacerbate many adverse health conditions.
Around 500,000 lung cancer deaths per year and 1.6 million deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are attributed to air pollution. Pollution can also be responsible for 19 per cent of deaths due to cardiovascular disease and 21 per cent of all deaths from stroke.
Researchers believe that air pollution affects people of all regions, ages and social groups. People are more vulnerable to air pollution if they have other illnesses or less social support. Air pollution is controllable and therefore many of these adverse health effects can be prevented.
Pregnant women, children under the age of 14 years and senior citizens are more prone to the ill effects of air pollution. As are people who need to spend time outside because of their work.
The Russian Arctic also suffers from transport pollution. Such conclusions were reached by scientists from the Tomsk Polytechnic University and the Pacific Oceanological Institute (POI) FEB RAS.
According to the study, up to 6 per cent of black carbon comes from gas flares, up to 12 per cent from forest fires, up to 9 per cent from thermal power plants, and the main contribution to pollution is made by transport (38 per cent) and local sources such as organisations and farms that burn wood and coal (35 per cent).
Scientists suggest that the pollution of the Arctic atmosphere is due to the transfer of air polluted by transport from the European part of Russia. The deposition of soot or black carbon (BC) on the surface of snow and ice leads to a reduced reflection of solar radiation, and this contributes to the increased melting of snow and of the ice cover.