1:11, 4月 17
|中等|| 65 美国 AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 19 µg/m³|
|pm10|| 24 µg/m³|
|o3|| 72 µg/m³|
|no2|| 12 µg/m³|
|so2|| 5 µg/m³|
|星期三, 4月 14|
优秀 31 美国 AQI
|星期四, 4月 15|
优秀 29 美国 AQI
|星期五, 4月 16|
优秀 38 美国 AQI
中等 64 美国 AQI
|星期日, 4月 18|
中等 72 美国 AQI
|星期一, 4月 19|
中等 62 美国 AQI
|星期二, 4月 20|
中等 56 美国 AQI
|星期三, 4月 21|
中等 55 美国 AQI
|星期四, 4月 22|
优秀 42 美国 AQI
|星期五, 4月 23|
优秀 22 美国 AQI
Bratislava is the largest city and capital of Slovakia with an estimated population of 430,000, however, for some reason, the real number is thought to be 660,000 which is around 150 per cent higher than the suggested figure. Bratislava sits in the south-western part of Slovakia and stands on both banks of the River Danube. Unusually, it borders two sovereign states and is the only European capital city to do so.
The air quality index in early 2021 indicated a “Good” level with a US AQI figure of 33. The concentrations of the pollutants were as follows: Pm2.5 - 8 µg/m³, PM10 - 14 µg/m³, ozone (O3) - 45 µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - 45 µg/m³ and sulphur dioxide (SO2) - 4 µg/m³. With relatively low figures such as these windows can be opened to let in the fresh air and outdoor exercise and other activities can be enjoyed.
In 2019, for 3 months of the year, Bratislava attained the target figure of 10 µg/m³ as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). During the months of March and August, the recorded level was “Good” with readings between 10 and 12 µg/m³. The remaining 7 months brought a figure of between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³ which classified it as “Moderate”.
As with most other cities in most other countries, the emission from vehicle exhausts is the number one source of air pollution in Bratislava. The most harmful substances for health, such as dust particles of PM10 and PM2.5, nitrogen oxides and ground-level ozone are just part of the noxious cocktail emitted by vehicles. Of the substances that are most harmful to human health PM10 dust particles which are those larger than 10 micrometres in diameter and PM2.5 which are even smaller, then nitrogen oxides and ground-level ozone. The level of pollution depends on the location, it is different in the forest park and different in the centre of a busy city. The whole area of the central zone around busy road junctions is significantly polluted.
The biggest air pollutants not only include energy, industry, transport and agriculture, but also domestic heating with solid fuel. In particular, fine dust particles increased emissions of nitrogen oxides and benzo-α-pyrene, which are produced from the combustion of solid fuel, from internal combustion engines in cars or during combustion processes in industry, cause health problems for the population.
The EURO 6 diesel vehicle with urea injection into the flue gas has no problem with dust particles, this only applies to EURO 5 and older cars. In particular, diesel passenger cars do not belong in the urban environment, they were not built for short distances and cold driving, which causes them problems. If they were significantly reduced in the city centre not only of Bratislava, it would be a step in the right direction. However, other vehicles are equally as bad, such as vans, supplies or urban transport, which can have a major impact on air pollution. Transit traffic must also be pushed out of the city centres via ring-roads or by-passes.
The local authorities are encouraging public transport to operate cleaner vehicles and as such, the city also approved the purchase of 90 new diesel buses. This will have a significant effect on air pollution in Bratislava, and it will certainly affect the air quality at the stops where buses come from and leave. It will definitely reduce local pollution, significantly.
The latest measure is a boiler subsidy of 35 million euros, which is intended for the replacement of old solid fuel boilers in households with ecological natural gas installations. At the same time, the European Union recently approved an integrated LIFE project worth EUR 15 million, which is aimed at improving air quality in Slovakia.
Air quality affects everyone who breathes air, without exception. Alarming values show that for a healthier and better quality of life in the city, it is necessary to take steps that will lead to a reduction in vehicular traffic. The solution is not complicated. Creating a separate cycling infrastructure, calming traffic and making public passenger transport more attractive will be a step forward. In Slovakia, it is also necessary to improve data collection and process it into a form understandable to ordinary people, as we are lagging behind the most in terms of information and according to the European Commission.
Congestion, accidents and polluted air are common occurrences in the rapidly developing capital of Slovakia which has more and more traffic problems and the demands on passenger service are growing. And since there are not many options left to deal with road transport, an ideal solution must be sought elsewhere.
One suggestion for the problems of Bratislava's transport infrastructure is the construction of a supporting system of public transport, especially trams. The advantage of Bratislava is that there is no need to start from scratch as the existing tram network is an excellent foundation on which to build. It is flexible, transports incomparably more people than cars or buses, does not pollute and its transportation capacity within Bratislava is comparable to the metro.
Although the foundations for quality tram transport in Bratislava are stable, the network lacks a central circuit. This would lighten the city centre, connect the current radials and support the flow of traffic. It has been proposed to complement the electricity network with a route that meets these expectations. It is a firm proposal that can significantly simplify the life of Bratislava residents and visitors to the capital not only by speeding up the centre and serving the developing parts of the city but also by connecting the two largest city districts - Petržalka and Ružinovo.
Polluted air acutely damages the respiratory system, but dust particles also contribute significantly to heart disease. If the body is chronically loaded with harmful substances, the immune system continues to fight something and will eventually lose strength. Pregnant mothers must also be careful because benzo (a) pyrene can cause complications in foetal development.
In the case of ultra-fine dust particles of PM2.5, these are small particles that penetrate the whole organism, even through the nose to the brain. It spreads through the bloodstreams all over the body. They are dangerous mainly because they can bind various metals and toxins to carcinogenic substances. According to the initiative, such polluted air may be related to a number of asthmatic, cardiovascular and oncological diseases.