7:03, 10月 25
|优秀||21 美国 AQI||PM2.5|
|Open your windows to bring clean, fresh air indoors|
|Enjoy outdoor activities|
|星期四, 10月 22|
中等62 美国 AQI
|星期五, 10月 23|
中等61 美国 AQI
|星期六, 10月 24|
中等56 美国 AQI
优秀17 美国 AQI
|星期一, 10月 26|
优秀26 美国 AQI
|星期二, 10月 27|
优秀14 美国 AQI
|星期三, 10月 28|
优秀29 美国 AQI
|星期四, 10月 29|
优秀16 美国 AQI
|星期五, 10月 30|
优秀17 美国 AQI
|星期六, 10月 31|
优秀20 美国 AQI
According to the city rankings, the air in Munich in 2019 could be described as "good" overall. However, with an average fine dust value PM2.5 of 10.6 µg/m3, air pollution in Munich was around 6% above the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 10 µg/m3 for fine dust. In the two previous years, air quality values were only "moderate", with 13.6 µg/m3 in 2018 and 13.8 µg/m3 in 2017. February was the month when air quality in Munich was worst in 2019, with 14.3 µg/m3.1 This means that in 2019, Munich can report an improvement in air quality of over 20% compared to the two previous years.
The real-time map of air pollution in Munich can be viewed at the top of this page along with the air quality forecast for Munich.
The air quality in Munich has improved a little over the years. The PM2.5 value has decreased since monitoring began in 2010. This long-term development can be observed at five air quality measuring stations in Munich. The strongest decrease can be observed at the station Landshuter Allee, a very busy location. Since the beginning of the measurements, the PM2.5 concentration here has decreased by 8.7 µg/m3. Another four stations have also recorded a decrease in fine dust concentration: Muggenhof by 4.6 µg/m3, Stachus by 3.8 µg/m3 and Lothstraße by 3.4 µg/m3. Solely at the measuring location Johanneskirchen the fine dust concentration could drop only 0.7 µg/m3 within a period of 7 years.2
An improvement in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels can also be observed over the years. The measuring station that has recorded the greatest change over the years is Stachus in the Sonnenstraße, with a NO2 decrease of 32 µg/m3 over the last ten years. The Landshuter Allee station also showed a strong decrease in NO2 values, with a reduction of 25 µg/m3. It should be noted, however, that these are the two stations in Munich with the highest initial values. The NO2 values decreased by 5.2 µg/m3 at Lothstraße and by 5.4 µg/m3 at Johanneskirchen.3
The proportion of carbon monoxide (CO) did not change much during the ten-year test period, as the CO concentration in Munich air was already at a very low level. Nevertheless, compared to the rest of Bavaria, apart from Augsburg, Munich had the strongest decrease in CO values. This was measured at the Stachus station with a reduction of 0.22 mg/m3. The CO value at Landshuter Allee has improved by 0.17 mg/m3 over the last ten years.4
Most of the air pollution with fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides in Munich is due to road traffic. At 52%, traffic is the main polluter of PM2.5 in the air. Industry, which is normally always in second place, contributes only 3% of the fine dust emissions in the state capital Munich. A large percentage of PM2.5 is emitted into the air by small-scale combustion in private households, i.e. by heating a stove or fireplace. However, since 2012, the city of Munich has always been able to comply with the particulate matter limits prescribed by the European Community (EU).5 In addition to particulate matter, the air is filled with various other pollutants that are released by the various emission sources. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has an annual mean value limit of 40 µg/m3 and an hourly mean value limit of 200 µg/m3. Munich has also been able to comply with these values for the hourly mean value since 2016. However, the annual mean value was not met in 2017 and 2018.6
The environmental zone was introduced in many German cities to protect air quality. Munich introduced the environmental zone on October 1, 2008. To be allowed to drive in the low emission zone, the vehicle must have an environmental badge. Over the years, the rules have been tightened to determine which sticker is required to enter the zone. Since 2012 only vehicles with a green sticker can enter the low emission zone. Excluded from this are for example ambulances, vehicles of doctors and diplomats and vehicles with special permits. A vehicle without an environmental sticker can be fined 80 euros in the low emission zone.7
In order to reduce air pollution in Munich, a support program was developed.8 This consists of measures to reduce traffic and promote more environmentally friendly means of transport. In addition, the city wants to support local public transport in the long term by expanding the subway and streetcar lines. In order to support the bicycle traffic, the bicycle path network will be expanded. The electric mobility will be strengthened not only by the expansion of the electric vehicles, but also by the electrification of the bus and cab fleet. The infrastructure for charging public transport as well as passenger cars will play an important role here. Traffic management, mobility sharing and pooling, parking space management and urban logistics are to play a decisive role in the coming years in reducing mileage-related emissions through this plan. Another important field of action is the proper marketing of these actions in order to motivate the population to change their current mode of transport.9
+ Article Resources
Landeshauptstadt München. (o. J.). Luftqualität. muenchen.de.
Feinstaub PM2,5. (2020). Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt.
Stickstoffdioxid (NO2). (2020). Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt.
Kohlenmonoxid (CO). (2020). Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt.
Landeshauptstadt München. (o. J.). Feinstaub. muenchen.de.
Dicke Luft – Reinheitsgebot für Münchner Luft. (o. J.). Reinheitsgebot für Münchner Luft.
Landeshauptstadt München. (o. J.). Umweltzone: Worum geht es? muenchen.de.
Landeshauptstadt München. (o. J.). Das Integrierte Handlungsprogramm zur Förderung der Elektromobilität in München (IHFEM 2015). muenchen.de.
Landeshauptstadt München. (o. J.). Masterplan zur Luftreinhaltung. muenchen.de.