|1||Ho Chi Minh City, 胡志明市|
|2||Thanh Pho Thai Nguyen, Tinh Thai Nguyen|
|3||Ben Cat, Tinh Binh Duong|
|4||Phuc Yen, Tinh Vinh Phuc|
|6||Luong Son, Tinh Hoa Binh|
|7||Hai BaTrung, 河内|
|8||Thua, Tinh Bac Ninh|
|9||Thanh Pho Ha Long, Tinh Quang Ninh|
|10||Bac Ninh, Tinh Bac Ninh|
|1||Truong THCS Thanh Da|
|2||Long Phuoc, District 9|
|5||Saigon Star International School|
|6||Saigon South International School|
|7||THCS Thanh My Loi|
|8||Mam non Hai Au Bay|
|9||Valencia Riverside District 9|
|10||SimCity Premier District 9|
|星期日, 1月 24|
中等 85 美国 AQI
|星期一, 1月 25|
中等 99 美国 AQI
|星期二, 1月 26|
对敏感人群不健康 120 美国 AQI
不健康 161 美国 AQI
|星期四, 1月 28|
对敏感人群不健康 121 美国 AQI
|星期五, 1月 29|
对敏感人群不健康 116 美国 AQI
|星期六, 1月 30|
对敏感人群不健康 116 美国 AQI
|星期日, 1月 31|
对敏感人群不健康 105 美国 AQI
|星期一, 2月 1|
对敏感人群不健康 101 美国 AQI
|星期二, 2月 2|
中等 96 美国 AQI
Ho Chi Minh City is classed as a moderately polluted city in South East Asia. From 2017 to 2018, the PM2.5 level rose from 23.6 to 26.9 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³). These levels are more than double those recommended by the WHO (World Health Organisation) as an annual guideline. Due to this fact, Ho Chi Minh City appeared in the league table of the top most polluted cities in the region. More data can be found in the IQAir AirVisual World Air Quality Report.
Ho Chi Minh City is Vietnam’s largest city but it is not as polluted as the country’s northern capital city which is Hanoi. The air pollution here was almost twice as high with the 2018 average PM2.5 µg/m3 of 40.8 micrograms per cubic metre. This ranked Hanoi as the second most polluted city in South East Asia.
The monitors are operated by the U.S. Consulate together with several other non-government sources. Since early 2016, hourly figures have been reported by the Consulate and the other figures are collated on a daily basis. There were just six non-government monitors in October 2019, but this figure has since risen to 15 monitors in December of the same year. These are mainly operated by schools, individuals, companies or universities.
Recently, there has been an increase in the amount of data collected by monitors across the city as inhabitants are becoming increasingly aware of the hazards associated with poor air quality. The Vietnamese government has recently announced that it intends to create another nine air quality monitoring stations, with another eleven promised before 2030.
The air quality usually gets worse between the months of November to January as this is the dry season and air pollution rises. Due to the lack of rain, the air does not get cleaned therefore the number of fine particulates rises sharply. Residents are encouraged to wear a good quality mask when outside in order to help mitigate the problem.
It is without a doubt that the main cause of air pollution in the city is due to the transportation system. There are millions of cars and motorbikes that clog the city's streets on a daily basis. Many of these vehicles are old and therefore do not comply with emission standards. There is a public transportation system, but this too operates fairly old vehicles which also belch out thick black smoke. However, there are some newer vehicles which are starting to appear.
Another factor which is a contributor to the poor air quality is the huge amount of construction underway. The demolition of the older building creates a huge amount of dust and when the new construction begins, cement powder becomes an issue.
Many households use charcoal cooking stoves which are cheap to operate and therefore very popular. Numerous restaurants offer barbeque style meals cooked over an open fire, fuelled by charcoal. Honeycomb charcoal is favoured by many residents because of its low cost.
The Saigon General Hospital reported a 5-10 per cent increase in admissions in September 2019. These patients were admitted on days with noticeably higher levels of PM2.5 particulates which is an indication of the connection between air pollution and public health.
In 2016, air pollution was attributed to causing the deaths of over 60,000 people throughout the whole country. These deaths were from heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, or chronic obstructive pulmonary heart disease according to figures released by the WHO (World Health Organisation).
There are times when the smog can be seen hanging over the city and it also reduces visibility on the roads which, in itself can be hazardous.
Vietnam's government have identified several short-term solutions which include much tighter regulations over vehicle emissions, together with an improved traffic control system. It has also been suggested that construction sites must take more responsibility for the control of dust and other pollutants generated by their working procedures. Clean sustainable energy needs to be made available to households in order to reduce the number of biomass products being burnt.
Urban planning needs to be considered when looking into the future of Ho Chi Minh City. There are many densely populated government-controlled facilities which could be relocated to the edge of the city. This would create swathes of green space giving much respite from the dirty city air. These facilities include hospitals, government departments, universities and schools. Private industry could also be encouraged to relocate to newly created industrial parks outside the city limits. This in itself would reduce the need for their employees to travel into the city which in turn will lessen the amount of traffic there, thus improving air quality.
A new code of practice regarding new–builds could be introduced as could the advent of solar-powered buildings and the use of green energy. Many people see the use of EVs (Electric Vehicles) to be an answer to pollution in our city centres. The use of such vehicles needs to be encouraged, possibly by the use of incentives when purchasing them or subsidies when using them to travel into the city.
An efficient public transportation system must be considered by making use of fuel-efficient buses. Many countries are using electrically powered buses in their city centres.
A member of the Vietnam Clean Air Partnership (VCAP), has recommended that large industrial facilities which produce large amounts particulate matter, should be more closely monitored and their emissions regulated. It has also been suggested that a cap is placed on the volume of vehicles that enter the city centre each day. This method has proved to be very effective in the large Chinese cities.
Individuals can also take measures by “carpooling” or cycling to work each day.